Urine Loss during a Volleyball Competition: Comparison between Amateur and Professional Athletes, published on the PM & R: the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation, is a very interesting research that focuses on a very particular aspect of volleyball competitions.
The study analyzes: "High-impact sports can cause dysfunction to the female pelvic floor that leads to the occurrence of stress urinary incontinence. To identify and compare the presence of urine loss between professional and amateur female volleyball athletes during a competition.
A cross-sectional and comparative study was conducted on 75 volleyball athletes, including 30 amateurs and 45 professional athletes. Female athletes 18 years of age or older were included. Urine loss during the competition was evaluated by self-report and measured by a pad test (in grams).
Urine loss during a volleyball competition?
Day-to-day urinary incontinence was identified using the Urinary Distress Inventory 6 (UDI-6). Before the beginning of the game, the instruments were applied by individual interview for data collection and the pad was positioned.
After the game, the pad was removed and weighed again. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used, with a significance level of 5%. Half of the professional (50.0%) and amateur (55.6%) athletes have symptoms of urine loss during a competition.
Objective urine loss was higher among professional athletes (4.5 ± 1.4 g) compared to amateur athletes (3.8 ± 1.4 g). There was a significant difference (P <.001) in objective urine loss between symptomatic (mean = 5.41, standard deviation [SD] = 0.8) and asymptomatic professional athletes (mean = 3.40, SD = 1.3).
Self-report of urinary incontinence during the competition was common among professional and amateur athletes. However, objective urine loss was significantly higher among professional athletes."
And about volleyball...
In sports, both individual and team, injuries are the biggest fear that athletes can have, as injuries can put a season, even a career, at risk.
Injuries can be from trauma or inflammation. Volleyball-related Adult Maxillofacial Trauma Injuries: A NEISS Database Study, published on the The Journal of craniofacial surgery, said: "Craniofacial trauma among athletes of various sports has been well detailed and described.
Despite this research, there is a dearth of literature describing the nature of facial trauma secondary to volleyball, despite its global popularity. A cross-sectional analysis of volleyball-related facial trauma was conducted using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database from 2009 to 2018.
Patient demographics, medical injury information (injury type and location), and disposition (observed and discharged, admitted, deceased) were collected and analyzed. χ2 testing was performed to compare categorical variables."
"A total of 235 volleyball-related facial traumas were recorded with an estimated 10,424 visits occurring nationally. The majority of injuries were among young adults aged 20 to 29 years (52.3%) and was evenly distributed for men and women.
Lacerations were the most frequent injury type (37.9%), whereas the face was the most common site of injury (41.7%). The majority of fractures involved the nose (71.4%) and among individuals aged 20 through 49 (90.5%). Males had significantly more lacerations than females (75.3% vs 24.7%), whereas females had significantly more contusions / abrasions (64.5% vs 35.5%) and concussions (72.9% vs 27.1%).
Volleyball-related craniofacial injuries can vary depending on patient demographics. This information can help with the development of safety and preventative measures for individuals participating in the sport."