Beijing is the capital of China, the third most populous city in China and the eleventh in the world with over 19 million inhabitants and is the second largest city in the world by surface area with its 16808 km². The climate of the city is strongly continental due to the hot and humid summers, often very muggy and not very tolerable even from an urban pollution point of view, and the decidedly cold winters if compared to a medium-low latitude.
The urban area of Beijing is instead located in the central-southern part of the municipality, occupying a growing, albeit limited, area. The development of the urban territory occurs through bands delimited by concentric ring roads. Tian'anmen Square is in the exact center of Beijing and is located south of the Forbidden City. To the west of Tian'anmen Square is located Zhongnanhai, an exclusive residential district for the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. Chang'an Avenue runs through central Beijing from east to west. The extension of the city itself is approximately 300 square kilometers.