Iran is an Asian country located at the eastern end of the Middle East with Tehran as its capital, which has a population of almost 85 million inhabitants. Until 1935, Iran was known in the West as Persia, home to one of the world's oldest civilizations. In 1953, the country's first democratic experiment was snuffed out by a coup d'état orchestrated by the United Kingdom and the United States, which returned the Pahlavi to power.

In September 2019, the US government is introducing new sanctions, including the latest source of income of the Central Bank of Iran, which is already on the US blacklist, but also the National Development Fund, their sovereign wealth fund, which will be cut off from the US banking system, according to Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin. According to Donald Trump, these are the toughest sanctions ever imposed on a country. Iran has a nuclear power plant in Bushehr and is planning further expansion. Iran has faced sanctions over the years due to suspected manufacturing of illicit nuclear weapons.