Mexico is a representative democracy composed of thirty-two federating entities. It occupies the southern part of North America and the northern part of Latin America. Mexico is bordered to the north by the border with the United States of America, to the east by the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the southeast by Belize and Guatemala and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Spanish is spoken in Mexico along with many officially recognized indigenous languages. After the Spanish conquest, Mexico began its struggle for political independence in 1810.

Subsequently, for almost a century the country was involved in a series of internal wars and foreign invasions that had a strong impact on all areas of Mexican life. For most of the 20th century there was a period of strong economic growth in the context of politics dominated by a single political party. By nominal GDP volume, Mexico is considered the world's fourteenth largest economy. However, the distribution of wealth is extremely unequal, so much so that human development indices can vary enormously from area to area of the country.