India is a federal state in South Asia, with its capital in New Delhi. It is the seventh state in the world by surface area, while with 1 billion and 400 million inhabitants from 2023 it will be the most populous state in the world. India is the fifth largest economy in the world in nominal terms and the third largest in terms of purchasing power. Economic reforms have transformed the state into the second fastest growing economy. Indian society is multilingual, multiethnic and characterized by historic religious pluralism.

Despite this, the country still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition, as well as having a caste-based social system that is still influential despite being officially abolished in 1947, the year India gained independence. Home to the Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent has been identified with its trade and cultural richness for much of its long history. Four major world religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism) were born here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived there by the 1st millennium AD, giving shape to the region's a huge cultural diversity.