Australia is a country located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and south, and the Pacific to the east. It is made up of the Mainland, the continental part or the main island, Tasmania and other smaller islands called Remote Lands, such as the Cocos and Keeling Islands, Christmas Island, Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, Macquarie Island and Heard Island. Canberra also claims the Australian Antarctic Territory with its bases.

Politically, Australia is a federal constitutional monarchy. The head of state is King Charles III of Australia, represented by a governor general. The capital is Canberra, but the most populous city is Sydney, followed by Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. Populated by Aboriginal people for more than 40,000 years, it was colonized by the United Kingdom starting in the 18th century. Australians, who call themselves Aussies, are a multi-ethnic people, including not only Aboriginal and European people, but also Asians and Americans.