Argentina is a federal republic in South America. With an area of 2,791,810 km², it is the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world, the second largest state in Latin America, the fourth largest in the Americas and the eighth largest in the world. Argentina also claims the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It also considers Argentina's Antarctic as part of its national territory, a claim suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. Argentina achieved independence on May 25, 1810 when the last Spanish viceroy who ruled from Buenos Aires was deposed, and on July 9, 1816, independence was officially proclaimed in San Miguel de Tucumán. After the economic crisis of 2001, the economy recovered its previous levels of well-being. In April 2023, President Alberto Fernandez announced his decision not to run again in the next legislative elections. On November 19, 2023, the run-off votes were resolved in favor of a liberal outsider, Javier Milei, with approximately 56% of the votes against 44% of those in favor of the candidate of the outgoing coalition, Sergio Massa.

On December 10, 2023, Javier Milei was sworn in as the new president of Argentina. Argentina occupies a continental area of 2,766,890 km², between the Andes mountain range to the west and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east and south. It ranks second in terms of surface area in South America and eighth in the world. Argentina advances territorial claims over a portion of Antarctica, where it has maintained a constant presence since 1904. The easternmost point of mainland Argentina is located northeast of the city of Bernardo de Irigoyen, province of Misiones, the westernmost point is the Mariano Moreno range in the province of Santa Cruz. The northernmost point is located at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers, Jujuy province, while the southernmost is Cape San Pío, in Tierra del Fuego.